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Achat d’armes allemandes par la France : « Il n’y a aucune risque » pour la souveraineté française

L’armée française commence à s’équiper progressivement de fusils d’assault allemands, les HK416, pour remplacer les Famas français. Cette décision ne remet pas en cause la souveraineté de la France, selon le directeur adjoint de l’Iris, Jean-Pierre Maulny.

© Fournis par Francetv info L’armée française reçoit les premiers HK416, des fusils d’assaut allemands qui vont progressivement remplacer les Famas, des armes françaises dont la production s’est arrêtée il y a 17 ans. Selon Jean-Pierre Maulny, directeur adjoint de l’Institut des relations internationales et stratégiques, cet achat ne remet pas en cause la position concurrentielle de la France en matière de défense sur la scène internationale.

franceinfo : pourquoi un constructeur allemand a-t-il été choisi pour remplacer le Famas français ?

Jean-Pierre Maulny : On a fait un appel d’offres sur le remplacement du Famas. Il s’est avéré qu’il y avait seulement une PME en France qui a déposé une offre, mais elle n’avait pas la surface financière pour pouvoir offrir des garanties sur un tel contrat qui s’étale sur plusieurs années, puisqu’il y aura toute la maintenance à faire. À partir de là, les offres étaient étrangères et notamment européennes et donc on a choisi un fusil allemand.

La France n’est-elle plus capables de produire des fusils d’assaut ?

On est parfaitement capables de produire des fusils d’assaut en France parce que ce n’est pas quelque chose qui appartient à de la très haute technologie. Mais on considère que ce n’est pas la peine de financer le développement de ce type d’armes, donc on laisse l’initiative se développer dans les entreprises privées. Or, il se trouve que nous n’avons pas de fabriquant d’armes légères qui ait une grande envergure dans ce domaine.

Cela peut-il poser un problème de souveraineté pour l’armée française ?

La véritable question concerne la sécurité d’approvisionnement : est-ce qu’on peut subir un embargo et ne plus avoir de fusils d’assaut en France ? Il se trouve qu’il y a quand même plusieurs constructeurs européens qui fabriquent des fusils d’assault. (…) De plus, au niveau européen, on s’est assuré depuis plusieurs années un principe de sécurité d’approvisionnement, c’est-à-dire qu’on ne peut pas s’interdire de se livrer des matériels entre européens donc il n’y a aucun risque à ce niveau-là.

La France s’équipe-t-elle à l’étranger sur d’autres types d’armements ou d’équipements ?

On a un principe en France qui est d’acheter français quand cela relève des intérêts essentiels de sécurité, c’est-à-dire des intérêts stratégiques majeurs. Par exemple, tout ce qui est dissuasion nucléaire et sous-marins de la dissuasion, on achètera en France. Pour les matériels les plus importants, on essaie de nouer des coopérations européennes. Dans ces cas-là, on aura des équipements qui seront fabriqués à la fois par des entreprises françaises et des entreprises européennes. C’est le cas par exemple du futur drone de reconnaissance, qui doit être Français, Italien, Allemand et Espagnol. Et pour les équipements qui sont les moins stratégiques parce qu’on sait très bien qu’on n’aura pas de problème de sécurité d’approvisionnement, on peut acheter « sur étagère », c’est-à-dire ce qui existe sur le marché. C’est le cas des fusils d’assaut.

L’industrie de l’armement française se porte-t-elle mal ?

Pas du tout, on a une industrie de la défense française qui se porte très bien. Au sein de l’Union européenne, les deux pays qui ont l’industrie d’armement la plus performante et la plus développée, ce sont les Britanniques et les Français. Or, les britanniques vont sortir de l’Union européenne donc on est un acteur majeur. On l’a vu notamment avec l’exportation du Rafale, l’avion de combat français, ces dernières années. Nous sommes également bien placés dans tout ce qui est technologie de pointe comme les sous-marins, l’électronique de défense ou l’aéronautique militaire. On a également une capacité industrielle importante dans l’armement terrestre puisqu’on est en train de vendre des blindés à l’armée belge.

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